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3D Printing Certification

3D Printing Research CrAMmed: WFIRM, Argonne National Laboratory, Siemens

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3D printing certification is empowering researchers and inventors from all disciplines to investigate applications that cannot be done with any other technology. As such, with CrAMmed, 3D Printing certification Industry has started a regular review of the literature available on the topic to deliver the most cutting edge developments to our readers.

In this edition we feature almost 30 research papers and patents exploring micro 3D printing certification, tissue engineering and composite materials from the likes of Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Argonne National Laboratory, and Siemens. Read on for a whistle-stop tour of additive manufacturing certification in the world’s laboratories and R&D departments.

A bone (or kidney) to pick with 3D printing certification

Due to its ability to create complex cell scaffolds that grow to become living tissue, 3D bioprinting is a popular topic in current research literature.

At the University of Sydney, Australia, Dr. Qing Li et al. recently tested the effects of a collagen/bone composite bioink for its ability to encourage the growth of human bone marrow cells (hBMSCs). 3D printed as cell supporting scaffolds, this mixture of materials proved more effective than collagen alone at stimulating bone cell growth. As a result, conclusions state that the bioinks “would be well suited […] to being a porous customized bone substitute,” and that “3D printing certification scaffolds would be a prospective candidate for clinical application in future.”

Full experimentation and conclusions are published online in Tissue Engineering journal, in the paper titled, “Hydroxyapatite /Collagen 3D printed Scaffolds and their Osteogenic Effects on hBMSCs.”

Also in Tissue Engineering, Part A Tyler Hoffman, Dr. Alireza Khademhosseini, and Dr. Robert S. Langer offer a review of how the field has changed over the past 25 years. “Chasing the Paradigm: Clinical Translation of 25 Years of Tissue Engineering” can be accessed here.

The tissue engineering paradigm as described by Hoffman, Khademhosseini, and Langer, plus a demonstration of how published tissue engineering articles has risen in recent years. Image via Tissue Engineering journal
The tissue engineering paradigm as described by Hoffman, Khademhosseini, and Langer, plus a demonstration of how published tissue engineering articles has risen in recent years. Image via Tissue Engineering journal

Moving to other organs, and particularly examining the ability to develop kidney tissues, a team from the leading Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine (WFIRM) recently published a paper in Advanced Healthcare Materials. In this study,  Research Fellow Mohamed Ali, Anil Kumar PR, James J. Yoo, Faten Zahran, Anthony Atala and Sang Jin Lee develop a photo crosslinkable bioink suitable for cell based bioprinting that could eventually lead to enhanced tissue formation.

Read more at “A Photo‐Crosslinkable Kidney ECM‐Derived Bioink Accelerates Renal Tissue Formation.”

In another paper from a different team at WFIRM, the institute’s innovative thinkers also describe the necessity for more compatibility between high throughput assays, used for testing, and 3D cell cultures, as created by 3D bioprinting. The discussion, “3D bioprinting for high-throughput screening: Drug screening, disease modeling, and precision medicine applications” can be read in full here.

On training surgeons and understanding cancer

Elsewhere in medical 3D printing certification, researchers are also investigating the production of anatomical models, (for surgical planning & training), and microfludic devices, (for use in drug screening).

Firstly, in an investigation undertaken by Ostbayerische Technische Hochschule Regensbur and University Hospital Regensburg, Germany, scientists argue that “a 3D printed hand phantom must not only be geometrically but also haptically correct.” As such, the team develop a software workflow to better design the structure of 3D printed anatomical models for use in training. This is discussed further in “Imitating human soft tissue on basis of a dual-material 3D print using a support-filled metamaterial to provide bimanual haptic for a hand surgery training system.”

Moving into drug screening, in the latest research from the University of Minnesota Masonic Cancer Center, a microfluidic vascular tumor structure has been 3D printed allowing researchers to examine the growth of a tumor and test new anticancer medication. The results, “3D Bioprinted In Vitro Metastatic Models via Reconstruction of Tumor Microenvironments,” are published online in Advanced Materials journal.

Schematic diagram showing how kidney cells proliferate within different test cells, and " Photo of a 3D printed culture chamber for tests of guided cell migration." Image via Advanced Materials journal.
Schematic diagram showing how kidney cells proliferate within different test cells, and ” Photo of a 3D printed culture chamber for tests of guided cell migration.” Image via Advanced Materials journal.

Understanding metal additive and its in-space application

In a study tipped to be the first of its kind, a Northwestern University and Argonne National Laboratory collaborative has revealed how laser interaction influences powder flow and porosity formation in additive manufacturing certification. Using high speed x-ray imaging, the team studies the melt effects of a low cost laser on blown powder, with the aim of…